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In this year a young brother by the name of Konrad Schumacher left Swabia with his people, and was apprehended at Stein, near Krems on the Danube, taken to Vienna, and there delivered into the hands of the authorities. There he lay in prison

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a year and several weeks, for the faith and the divine truth. In the prison he suffered great want and hunger among the thieves and other malefactors, of whom there were several imprisoned with him. Nothing was given them, except what others brought and gave to them. Besides, when these malefactors had been tortured, as is customary, they treated him most shamefully, so that he suffered great hunger, before he could, get something to eat, when they even had something. Thus he had to suffer much misery in prison, aside from the tyranny.

About this time Emperor Ferdinand attended a great diet at Augsburg, during which time the Bishop of Vienna had the brother brought before him twice, each time in the early morning before daylight, and was intending to have him executed in the house. The first time they brought him forth, and briefly examined him; and wanted him to tell whether he would desist from his faith or not. He briefly answered and said that they should not expect such a thing, since he would die in his belief; that it was the truth, and the way to eternal life, and this he should confess with his mouth as long as there should be strength enough in him. Now their intention was frustrated, so that they could accomplish nothing that day, only that they disputed with him from early morning until noon, whereupon they remanded him to prison, saying that he should consider the matter for three days longer, and then tell them what he would do. After three days they again brought him forth, early in the morning, before daylight, and led him before the bishop and his monks and priests, before whom he most faithfully defended the truth. The executioner was also at hand, waiting without, thinking to behead him early, before any people should come; for they feared lest the truth should come to light, and the people learn that injustice was being done him. But the Lord again hindered them, so that he was brought back to prison. In the meantime, however, the priests disputed much with him, and gave him no rest.

After this they threatened to put him into a filthy tower, which had not had an occupant for eight years, where he should end .his life. He said that he would bide it, and would put his trust in the Lord, who was well able to deliver him out of the filthy tower, and.from all their power; he thought, however, that the Lord had accepted him for a witness of the truth.

He showed himself so undaunted in everything that many of them were astonished at him. Others said they would try something new with him, whereby they should certainly frighten him enough. In the meantime King Maximilian's steward admonished the bishop for the best, and also spoke of the matter to the Lutheran preachers of the king, who then told it to the king, and spoke most favorably of the matter, saying that he was very young yet, and that it would be a pity to put him to death on account of the faith. Thereupon King Maximilian concluded to free him from further tyranny and suffering, whereupon he was released from prison, and thus returned in peace to his brethren and his church.


On the 20th of February, 1558 stilo coj., in presence of Adriaen Fijck, Adriaen Adriaens, Adriaen Robberts, Pieter Hendricks, Cornelis Joosten, and Willem Muylwijck, judges, there was orally examined, Annetgen Antheunis, aged over thirty years, born at Buuren.

She says that she always lived at Buuren, except one year that she resided here in the city, which she afterwards left, but returned about last St. Victor's day, and has since resided here until the present time.

She says that she did not inquire the name of the people where she formerly worked.

She says that she and another woman, named Stijntje van Ick, or Maurick near Buuren, have lived here in the city since St. Victor's day, and that she came here with said woman, from Buuren.

She says that Evert is from Antwerp, and that he came to her yesterday, at the house where she was apprehended.

She says that she learned to know said Evert only about two or three months ago, and that he came in the daytime, to the house of Arent Willems, in the woodyard, to buy a cheese.

She says that she did not go to confession either at last Easter or Christmas.

She says that she observes all that God has commanded.

She says that she was baptized according to the command of the Lord, but does not know the exact day; but that it took place at the house of the aforesaid Axent Willems, in the woodyard, and that she did not inquire the name of him that baptized her.

On the 20th of February of said year, in the presence of the above-mentioned, there was orally examined, one Jan Hendricks, of Utrecht, aged 28 or 29 years.

He says that he has lived here in the city since Bamessche, in the house of Maritgen Jancheelen, in the fishmarket, and last in Willem Reyer's house, where he was apprehended.

He says that at Dordrecht he lived near Starke Neele.

He says that he does not want to tell where or from whom he heard the doctrine.

He says that he thinks much of the sacrament, but nothing of the sacrament of the priests, and that, since he embraced this doctrine, he has never been to the sacrament.

*Extracted from a certain book of criminal sentences of the city of Amsterdam.
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He says that he was baptized since he believed, a certain time ago, and that he does not wish to tell when, where, or by whom it was done.

He says that his child was washed a little by the priest, but does not want to tell when.

On the aforesaid day, in the presence of the aforesaid judges, there was orally examined, Stijntgen Jans, aged 40 years, from Maurik, in Guelderland.

She says that she has been here in the city about two or three years, with Annetgen Theunis, and that they lodged in the woodyard, and afterwards resided in a house where lace is made, and which stands behind a stable.

She says that she has no faith in the sacrament which the priests administer, but esteems the sacrament as God has instituted it, and that she cannot believe in the sacrament of the church, because she cannot comprehend it.

She says that she was baptized at a certain time, not yet twelve years ago, and not here in this city, but at Utrecht.

On the same day, and in the presence of the above, there was orally examined, one Evert N'outs o f Antwerp, aged about 27 years.

He says that it is about three months since he came here into this city, and that he lodged for a time in the woodyard, and wove lace near the house called the Falcon.

He says that he believes in the sacrament so far as the Scriptures speak of it, but does not believe that God is in the sacrament of the altar, since the Scriptures do not assure him of this; but he believes concerning it in this manner that it is so, as far as it goes.

He says that he was baptized according to the doctrine of Christ, a little over three years ago, just outside of Antwerp, in a certain place, by one Gillis of Aix-la-Chapelle, as he heard him called, who was executed this summer at Antwerp.

On the same day, and in presence of the abovementioned judges, there was orally examined one Pieter van Eynoven, born at Antwerp; aged 28 years.

He says that he has worked here in the city, at his trade of silk weaving, since fourteen days before Christmas, in the house of one Christian, whose wife is named Anneken.

He says that he believes on the foundation of the apostles and prophets.

He says that he believes that the administration of the sacrament in the church is, a great abomination before God.

He says that he was baptized according to the doctrine of Christ, about two years ago, but does not want to tell by whom or where it was done.

On the 19th of March, 1558, stilo coj. in the presence of Adriaen Fijck Dirks van Hove, Adriaen Adriaens, Adriaen Robbertszoon, Pieter van Neck Hendricks, Cornelis loosten, Willem Corneliss Muylwijk, and Dirk Dirks, judges, there was examined by torture, in the morning, at six o'clock, in the city hall, Pieter van Eynoven, born at Antwerp, aged about 28 years.

Pieter, when tortured on the rack, said that he was baptized at Antwerp, about two years ago, by one Leendert, whose surname he does not know,

nor whence he is, and he had never seen him, except when he baptized him.

He says that several others, whose names he does not know, were present when he was baptized.

When asked concerning the women with whom he spoke at the time of his apprehension, he said that he did not know where they were going, or who they were.

He says that he who baptized them, is called a teacher among them.

He says that before he was baptized he had heard that he had to live according to the command of Christ, and that he took a Bible and Testament, and read therein, and found that it was as had been told him; but he does not know the names of those who had previously instructed him herein, because they often do not inquire the names of others, nor want to know them, so as not to bring their brethren into trouble.

He says that his master, Christian, and his wife, had the same faith as he, but does not know whether they are baptized.

Jan Hendricks of Utrecht, aged 28 years, severely tortured on the rack.

He says that he was baptized by one Leenert, but does not know whence he is, nor had he ever seen him previously, and that he was baptized by him here in the city, in the woodyard, a year and a half ago.

He says that his child was baptized by the priest, at the font, at Dortrecht, and that no others whom he knows were present when he was baptized.

Stijntgen Tans, aged about 40 years, of Utrecht

Stijntgen says that he who baptized her is named Leenert, and that it took place in Utrecht, five or six years ago, in the house of one Gerrit, and that she does not know the surname of the aforesaid

Leenert, nor whence he is, because they do not inquire nor have much desire to know the names

or surnames of their fellow members, so as not to bring them into trouble.

She says that others were baptized with her, but she did not know them.

The judges being .all assembled, resolve to postpone the matter of the aforesaid prisoners to a limited day, until the executioner's .return, in order that said prisoners shall consider the matter, and that it may be seen whether they can be induced by kind means: and that they shall then comply with

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the wishes of the bailiff, by expediting the matter and justice, if the judges are all at home.

On the 28th of March.-The judges resolve, since Cornelis Joosten and Dirk Dirks, judges, are not at home, to postpone the case of the aforesaid prisoners, until the former return.

The bailiff protests costs and interests, since the judges will not consent to limit a day for said prisoners.

The judges protest and say that since Cornelis JOosten and Dirk Dirks, of their number, are absent, and they have agreed together to be present in full number to consider the case of said prisoners, they adhere to their former decision.

On the 26th of March all that they had orally confessed at torture was read to the aforesaid five prisoners, who publicly, in front of the city hall, acknowledged it to be true, in the sight of everyone, and a day, namely, Monday, the 28th of March, was limited for them, by the bailiff, Gerrardt van der Mersche. Done as stated above, in presence of Adriaen Fijck, Adriaen Adriaens, Adriaen Robbrechts, Pieter Hendricks, Cornelis Joosten, William Corneliss, and Dirk Dirks, judges.

Sentence of Death, on the 28th of March, 1558, stilo Col.

According to the written laws pursuant to the decrees of his Imperial Majesty, confirmed by his Royal Majesty, who will have them observed in all their points and articles; and through the demand of the bailiff, and the confession of the prisoners, Evert Nouts, Pieter van Eynhoven, both of Antwerp, and Jan Hendricks of Utrecht, said prisoners shall be executed according to the decree. Done in the presence of Adriaen Fijck, Adriaen Adriaens, Adriaen Robbrechts, Pieter Hendricks, Cornelis Joosten, Willem Corneliss, and Dirk Dirks, judges, and Sir Roeland, pensionary.

In regard to Stijntgen Jans and Annetgen Antheunis, decision of their case is deferred for certain reasons, the judges moving postponement until after Easter.

NOTE.-On the 28th of March, 1558, stilo coj., after the above sentence had been pronounced by Matthijs Oark, the secretary, and the aforesaid prisoners had been condemned to be executed with fire, all the necessary preparations were made here before the city hall; three large stakes were placed near together, at which to strangle said prisoners first, before burning them; and the place having been shut off with planks and stakes, it was proclaimed in the name of the bailiff, magistrate, burgomasters and judges, in front of the city hall, with the striking of the bell, that every one should leave the ring, on pain of forfeiting his upper garment; and that no one should hinder or resist justice by word or act, on pain of life and property. Between eleven and twelve o'clock, every preparation necessary for the execution having been made, the aforesaid Jan Hendricks was first brought out to be executed, and placed at the middle stake upon alittle stool, and a cord put around his neck, to strangle him. Thereupon Master Aert, the young constable, as substitute for Master, Jan van Haarlem,the executioner from behind, twisted said cord tight with a stick, and then took away the little stool from under Jan Hendricks' feet, and while thus hanging pulled him with all his might by his body and legs; whereupon said Master Jan came with a bundle of oat straw, into which a quantity of gunpowder had been put, and held it before his face, to singe it; but Master Aert had a pair of tongs with a red-hot coal, to cast into the gunpowder. He threw it three or four times, without being able to touch the gunpowder, so that the straw smoked, but the powder was not ignited.

In consequence of this a great cry arose, one saying, "You throw the fire badly;" another, "You inflict a thousand deaths upon the man;" and finally,"Stone the constable to death," and the like. Then a woman threw a slipper, and others of the bystanders began to throw stones at the constable. Master Hans was then pushed by the citizens, into the house of Jan Sampel, in the Golden Waggon, opposite the City Hall and concealed; while the young constable, called Master Aert, together with the servants of the procurator-general, also of Schielandt, and of this city, who had been summoned to the assistance of justice, fled into the city hall, followed by Gerrit van der Mersche, the bailiff; leaving said Jan Hendricks still suspended by the cord. The judges, the pensionary, and the secretary, seeing the great tumult and uproar, took refuge up in the square of the city hall tower. The first ones who arrived there were Adriaen Robberts, the judge, and Matthijs Bark, the secretary, who, from the square of the tower, saw Jan Hendricks still hanging at the stake. With great violence the planks were torn off, and the stakes pulled out, from the enclosure that had been erected to keep the people from getting to the officers of justice. A lad then came and passed the stake, intending to cut the cord by which said Jan had been strangled; but he did not venture to do it, whereupon another came, who cut the cord, so that Jan fell to the ground. And as the perpetrators of this crime were mostly strangers, the citizens who lived in the neighborhood, locked their doors. The bailiff, together with the servants of the procurator-general, and of Schielandt, barricaded the front of the city hall with benches, planks, and other wood, in order to keep the two others that had been sentenced, and the women. But as the tumult and uproar increased more and more, the rioters pulled out the stakes, and other stakes f rom the street, and came with violence before the door of the city hall, in order to force it open. The door, however, being firmly barricaded, they went with the stakes upon the hospital stairs, and forced open the back door of the city hall, which leads to the chamber of Schielandt, and the treasury. Hearing this, the bailiff and his servants, who were there with the prisoners, left the two women behind, since Annetge was a crip-

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ple, and not able to walk, and took the other two prisoners that had been sentenced, and fled with them from the lower part of the city hall up into the tower. The rioters thus forced open the front as well as the rear of the city hall, broke the doors in pieces, and first took the aforesaid two women, brought them without the city, and led them away. Thereupon they returned into the front of the city hall, and smashed in the door leading up into the tower, calling and crying, aloud for the two men prisoners; or they would kill them all, and set the tower on fire; so that the servants released said prisoners, whom the rioters then brought without the city.

After this they cried as loud as ever, and demanded the young constable, and also the bailiff and the members of the court. And as the servants were in a story of the tower below the one occupied by the lords of the court, they told the rioters aloud that the lords and the constable had already left the city hall. Deeper silence could not have reigned in a convent, than prevailed at this time among the lords; for though some did not make an outward manifestation of the regret which they felt in their hearts, he that had sharp eyes, could read it in their face. And though it was past noon, and no one had eaten much that day, yet I believe, if there had been an abundance of the most tempting viands, none would have made very great inroads upon them.

But at last, God be praised for it, the tumult and uproar ceased; so that through the faithfulness of Adriaen Jacobs Tromper, councilor of said city, who had left the ark, but returned with an olive twig, and informed the lords of the court, in their anxiety, that the uproar had subsided, and that the rioters had all gone away. Thus, about two o'clock in the afternoon, the lords left the tower; but the city was still in great commotion, and Jan Hendricks, the prisoner that had been cut down, was brought into the house of one Kers Goverts Brouwer, near the city hall, where he remained until about five or six o'clock in the evening, when he was openly put into a boat, and taken out of the city, and it is said that he is still living.

That evening the arquebusiers were ordered on guard. The next day; the 29th of March, a delegation went in behalf of the city to the Hague, to the lords of the council, where they reported the matter, presented an excuse in behalf of the city, and requested that commissioners be sent to inquire into the matter, that the city might be exculpated from the uproar. Next day, Sir Guiljand Zeegers, Lord van Wassenhoven, and Sir Christian de Waert, procurator-general, arrived here, and made some inquiries concerning the crime, and reported the information obtained to the council. His Royal Majesty, having been informed that full control had been gained over the city, speedily dispatched (since my lord the margrave van Veere was sick) the count of Boussu and my lord of Cruyningen, who passed through here secretly, on Easter eve, on their way to the Hague, where they, on EasterDay, convened the whole council. They wrote to the bailiff, to close the gates and bars, and to fetch those who had been designated and reported, from their beds, in the night; which was done after the close of Easter Day, and there was apprehended in the night, with the assistance of the arquebusiers, and in presence of the burgomasters, one Chiele Pot. On the following day, the second Easter Day, there arrived in the city the Count of Boussu, my lord of Cruyningen, Sir Gerrit van Assendelft, President of the Council, Guiljand Zeegers, lord of Wassenhoven, Sir Cornelis Zuys, Aernoult Sasbout, Cornelis van Weldam, and Dominicus Boot.

On the 21st of April, 1558, after Easter

Whereas Jacob Theunis, alias Mosselman, born at Rotterdam, at present a prisoner, has confessed, without torture and iron bonds, before the count of Boussu, knight of the order of the Golden Fleece, the lord of Cruyningen, as commissaries from his Royal Majesty, and the court-of Holland; that he, the prisoner, after the tumult and uproar in this city of Rotterdam had taken place, went to the city hall, to see what was going on there, and that as he ascended the steps of the city hall, a crutch was thrown at his neck, whereupon he picked it up, went with it into the city hall, where the servants were still in the tower, and threw it up from below at the servants; all of which are things of bad example, and must not go uncorrected, but must be punished, as a warning example unto others; therefore, the aforesaid court, after mature deliberation, in the name of the King of Spain, of England, of France, etc., as Count of Holland, Zeeland and Vriesland, has condemned and does sentence by these presents, the aforesaid prisoner Jacob Theunis, to appear in audience, and there to ask, with uncovered head, on his knees, the forgiveness of the court, on behalf of his Royal Majesty and justice, and to declare that he is sincerely sorry that he threw the crutch at the servants, in the city hall: and that after this is done, he is to be brought upon the scaffold erected in front of the city hall of this city, and to remain standing there until after the execution of the rioters. Done at Rotterdam by Sir Geraerdt van Assendelft, Emskerk, etc., first president of the council, Guiljand Zeegers, lord of Wassenhoven, etc., knight, Sir Cornelis Zuys, Aernout Sassebout, Cornelis van Weldam, Dominicus Boot, Damas van Drogendijk, Quintijn Weytszoon, and Aernout Nicolai, Councilors of Holland, and pronounced on the 21st of April, 1558, after Easter.

Whereas Avicenna Jans, born at Delft, at present a prisoner, has confessed, without torture and iron bonds, before the count of Boussu, Knight of the Golden Fleece, and the lord of Cruyningen, as commissaries of his Royal Majesty and the court of Holland, that he, the prisoner, at the time of the tumult and uproar which recently occurred in this city of Rotterdam, stood at the house of Kors Goverts Brouwer, and that after said uproar was

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almost over he, intending to go home, in his consternation went eastward, and again passed the house of the aforesaid Kors, and having seen that the condemned and strangled man, who had been cut down from the stake at which he had been strangled, was brought to the house of the aforesaid Kors Goverts, he, the prisoner also went into the house; and that, while the strangled man was yet lying in the street near the door, and because some of the other bystanders had said to him"Take the man (meaning the strangled man) further back," he, the prisoner, also seized hold of him; and that after the strangled man had been lifted up and carried into the house, he, since some had told him to see whether there was yet life in the strangled man, tapped the soles of his feet, and afterwards, in the evening, returned home from the aforesaid house-

Here the account in said book of criminal sentences abruptly ends; so that it remains uncertain what was further done in the matter.

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