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In the year of our Lord 1210, a large sacrifice of believers, called Perfecti or Albigenses took place near the castle Minerve; so that at one time about one hundred and eighty persons, men as well as women, who, forsaking the Roman antichrist, desired to adhere steadfastly to Jesus Christ and His divine truth, were publicly burnt; these, having commended their souls to God, are now waiting for the crown and reward of the faithful.

As to the manner in which this occurred, different papistic writers give this account: That the pope of Rome caused a second crusade or campaign to be preached, in order to annihilate with might and main the Albigenses wherever they might be concealed; promising forgiveness of sins, yea, eternal salvation to all who in this campaign should well acquit themselves in murdering and burning the Waldenses.

In the meantime there were in the castle of Minerve very many Albigenses called Perfecti (perfect ones), who resided under the lord of the castle, and were protected by him.

This castle, situated on a high rock, was besieged by the legate of the pope, and so hard pressed, that the lord of the same was finally, through lack of water, compelled to surrender. The legate commanded that all who would not unite with the Roman church, should he put to death.

Those within, however, (namely, the defenseless Albigenses) said, "We do not wish to forsake our faith; we reject your Roman faith; your labor is vain, for neither death nor life shall cause us to depart from our faith." Such was the answer and resolution of the men, who were all assembled together in one house. The women, who were in another house, were found by the abbot so courageous and undaunted that with all his fine words he could make no impression upon them.

The count of Montfort then caused them all (namely, these confessors) to come out of the castle, the men as well as the women, and having ordered a large fire to be kindled, he had them all cast into it, to the number of one hundred and forty; all of whom were burnt alive, except three women, who, having apostatized through weakness, escaped the fire. All the others that were in the castle (namely, the lord with his servants and soldiers, who had guarded the castle), complied with the will of the papal legate.

Peter Sarnensis, speaking of these people that were put to death, says, that these hundred and forty martyrs were of the Albigenses called Perfecti; and adds, that they would rather be burned alive, than unite with the Roman church. In Hist. Albigens. Also, loh. Chassan., Hist. Albig., lib. 3, carp. 7, ex Hist. Languedoc.

From the account of Robert of Auxerre, a strong papist, who wrote at that time, and, it seems, was an eyewitness of the steadfast death of these people, it appears, that about forty more than the preceding writers have stated were burned;. which might well be the case, namely, that the former first, and the latter afterwards, confessed themselves to be of the same faith, and thus were punished alike with death. He writes as follows, "In A. D. 1210 a great expedition was undertaken by our bishops, as well as by the lords and princes of the realm, and by the common people. This expedition was a very noted one, and was undertaken from pure devotion, or by vow; partly through the zeal of faith enkindled in the hearts of the believers (so he calls the papists), against the destroyers of the faith (thus he calls the true Albigenses), and partly, in order to merit the forgiveness of sins, promised by the apostolical see (the Pope of Rome); hence they marched with their assembled army before the castle of Minerve, which was a very strong place."

At last the besieged offered to surrender; but when it was proclaimed to all, that those who would turn from their heresy, should be left free and unmolested, about one hundred and eighty were found (namely, Albigenses) who rather suffered themselves to be burnt alive, than desist from their heretical wickedness (thus he calls their true faith).

Those who witnessed this, he writes, were astonished at the inexorable obstinacy of these miserable people, who would not listen to any salutary admonitions (thus he calls the fables of the papists), because their reason was smitten, and thus they voluntarily hastened to the punishment of death. Rob. Aux. Chronol. Altiss., A. D. 1210, compare with A. Mell., 2d book, fol. 454, col. 2.

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In the year 1211, or a little before, when the count of Montfort, by order of the pope, was exercising great tyranny for the purpose of exterminating the Albigenses, he learned, through an informer, or in some other way, that in a place called Casser, there resided many of these people, under the protection of the lord of said place. He therefore went to lay siege to it; but those within (namely, the garrison), seeing that they would not be able to hold out long, notwithstanding the place was tolerably strong otherwise, capitulated, with this agreement, that they would deliver into the hands of the enemy, those called heretics (or Albigenses); these the bishops sought to persuade to renounce their faith, but they could not prevail upon them in the least; in consequence of which sixty persons were burnt for the sake of that religion. Chris. Hist., Albig., lib. 3, compared with A. M. Hist., fol. 456, cot. 4.


About the close of the year 1211, it is recorded, the legate of the pope, having gone forth utterly to extirpate all those that professed the confession of the above-mentioned Albigenses, was apprised, that over eighty, but according to others, about a hundred of that sect or heresy, as it was called, were concealed on, or in, a tower at Cassas. They had been sent thither by those of Rogueville (who, it seems, were not willing that any of these defenseless people should remain among them), that they might save their lives, until this bloodthirsty man should have passed by. Having learned this, the legate very easily surprised, captured and demolished this tower, and caused all those that were in it-like sheep for the slaughter in .the fold, who would not abandon their faith, to be burned alive as heretics. Chass., lib. 3, cap. 15. Also, A. Mell., 2d book, fol. 457, cot. 1.


This fire of the papal legate continued, like a thunderbolt, to burn and scorch among the defenseless flock of Christ, called Albigenses, or heretics, who had concealed themselves here and there, wherever they thought they might be secure.

In the meantime, there were fifty of these people at Chastelnau d'Ari, shut up and closely besieged, together with all that were in that place; by the count of Montfort, the commander-in-chief of the papal legate. Finally, the place having been taken, all these persons, as they would not depart from their faith, were burnt alive, and thus, having com mended their souls unto God, they gave their bodies for a burnt sacrifice.

Chassanion writes, that when the Count of Montfort had taken the city of Chastelnau d'Ari, fifty persons were found in it, who would rather be burnt alive than returned- to the papistic religion. Compare Chassau., lib. 3, cap. 16, with A. Mell., 2d book, fol. 457, cot. 1.


Previously we stated, that the Albigenses, whose confession we showed to be good and Scriptural, were called by various names. Besides those names already explained, they were also called Induti, or hestiti, that is, the clothed, or covered, either because they had to cover or conceal themselves on account of persecution, or for some other reason.

This, at least, is certain, that they are compared by Mellinus, 2d book, page 443, cot. 3, to the Albigenses, called Perfecti; who were also styled, as he shows, Boni homines, that is, good men, because they, as it seems, were good and upright in their walk. Very many of these good, upright, and not less believing people, were burnt for the faith, as heretics, suffering it innocently and patiently, in the city of Lavaur, also called Vaurum, about the year 1211. Their number, according to ancient chronicles, amounted to over four hundred.

Nicholas Bertrand quotes the following from the papistic chronicle of William de Podio Laurentii, "Simon, count of Montfort, hastened with the Lord's (the Roman Pope's) army, to lay siege to the fortress or city, of Vaurum, which Amerius, lord of Montreal and Laurack, brother of the lady Geralda, had undertaken to defend for her sake. Within there was no small number of those heretics called Induti, who did not always reside there, but had congregated at that time from distant countries.", "The army of God, therefore," he writes, (namely, the army of the pope)"encompassed the fortress, or city, and gave the besieged no rest night and day. Those within perceiving, . . . surrendered unconditionally to the beleaguers."

He then goes on to relate how they dealt with those who had guarded the city, or fortress, and coming then to the above-mentioned people who, to live according to their faith, had resided quietly and peaceably among the other inhabitants, he says, "The heretics called Induti, that is, clothed, about three hundred, others write, over four hundred, he caused to be burned alive." Nich. Bertrand de Gest. Tholosan., fol. 27. The lives of the common people, however, were spared upon certain conditions.

A large fire was made of wood, says Robert Altissiodorensis, and the choice was given to all, either to turn from their errors (so he speaks, after the manner of the papists), or to be burnt alive; whereupon a great number, over four hun-

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dred, as stated, were found who were so obstinate in their error (as he calls their true faith) that they would rather be burnt than confess the Roman Catholic faith. Chronol., page 106. Also A. Mell., 2d book, fol. 456, Col. 2, 3.


In the year 1206, it is recorded, that Pope Innocent III exercised great cruelty against the followers of the doctrine of Peter Bruis and Henry of Toulouse, who, among other things, rejected infant baptism, the mass, and transubstantiation, as has already been stated. The manner, however, in which this cruelty was manifested toward them, is not expressed. P. 1. Twisck, Chron., page 523, Col. 1.

Undoubtedly, the pope then caused to be carried out what he had threatened, A. D. 1198, in his three letters, against the Waldenses and others that were called heretics, namely, that they should be spoiled of their goods, expelled from the country, and the material sword of the princes used against them. In regard to said three letters and threats, see A. Mell., 2d book, fol. 444, Col. 2, 3, and fol. 445, cot. 1.


In various ancient histories we read, that not only in France and Germany, but also in England, the doctrine of the Albi-Waldenses* obtained a foothold, so that in said Island, especially at London, numbers were found, who made this profession, to the great detriment of the Roman religion. On this account, the popish clergy, unable to brook this, became filled with great bitterness against them, so that they, it seems, determined to punish one of them in such an exemplary manner, that it would ter the rest, and cause them to leave the country; or at least, to desist from confessing and speaking otherwise than those of the Roman Catholic church.

Thereupon they apprehended one of their number, whose name we have not been able to learn because they, afterwards perhaps, were ashamed of the deed, and in order to,give their design some semblance [of justice], they charged him with having reviled the clergy, and that he, consequently, was not fit to live, but deserved to die an ignominious and miserable death. He was accordingly burnt alive, A. D. 1210.

Concerning this, Balaeus writes, from the Chronicle of London: That the Albigenses in England

* Albigenses, says the writer; however they were of the profession of the Waldenses; but because of their origin from the province of Albf, they were called Albigenses.

(according to the Papists) reviled the clergy, and that in consequence thereof a man was burnt alive by them, at London, A. D. 1210. Cent. 3, Script. Britt., in Append. ad Gualterum Horganium, page 258, compared with A. Mell. Hist., fol. 455, Col. 4.

P. J. Twisck, having given some account of many Waldensian martyrs at Strasburg, for the year 1210, proceeds thus, "The Chronicle of London states, that also in England a great number, namely, of Waldenses, or, as has been stated, Albigenses, who were of the same faith, were found, and that one of them was burnt at London." Chron., page 526, Col. 1.

NOTE.-P. J. Twisck, after relating said matter concerning the Albigensian martyr, at London, adds, "A. D. 1210. In the city of Narbonne one hundred and thirty persons were put to death by the priests, because they reproved the great abuses and idolatry of the popes. In the same year there were also killed at Paris, in France, twenty-four martyrs and witnesses of the truth, because they would not consent to the false doctrine of antichrist." Chron., p. 526, from Guil. Merul. Tijdtthresoor, fol. 800. Hist. der Mart. Adri., fol. 39. Chron. Zeg., fol. 299. Henr., Box. fol. 23.


Christian Massaeus, having noticed the case of a great company of martyrs who, having been found in the castle Minerve, were all burnt alive as heretics, adds this account, "At that time, namely, A. D. 1210, also at Paris, twenty-four who were of the same obstinacy (thus he, after the manner of the papists, calls the steadfastness of these people), were burnt alive." Christ. Mass. Chron., lib. 17, A. D. 1210, compared with the large Christen Martelarersboeck, edit. 1619, fol. 455, Col. 4.

The writer, after the manner of the papists, calls these people heretics, and their steadfast faith obstinacy; but how can anything good proceed from the mouth of the wicked? However, this must not offend us, since not only these, but even the ancient holy prophets, apostles, and servants of God, were stigmatized with many opprobrious names, yea, titles of the devil, by evil worldly men.


A. D. 1212, the true doctrine of the Gospel began to manifest itself to a great extent in Alsace, among the Waldenses, who were one people and of the same faith with the Albigenses. But the prince of darkness, unable to endure this great light, exerted every means to extinguish it, so that in said year, in Strasburg alone, about a hundred persons,

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men as well as women, were burnt alive on the same day, for this confession, by the servants of antichrist, particularly through the bishop of that city.

Concerning this, the papistic writer H. Mutius writes, "A. D. 1212 a heresy arose in Alsace, by which noble and ignoble were led astray. They maintained that it was lawful to eat flesh every day throughout the whole year, and that there is as much excess in the immoderate eating of fish, as of any kind of flesh." Again, "That they do very wrong who forbid marriage; since God has created all things, and everything may be used in a holy manner, with thanksgiving."*, "This, their opinion," he writes,"they maintained very firmly, and many believed them. Moreover, they did not hesitate (hear how the papists speak) to revile the most holy lord, the pope, because he prohibited ecclesiastical persons from marrying, and bade them abstain on certain forbidden days from some kinds of food. The pope of Rome therefore commanded that these people should be made away with and put to death. Hence, about a hundred were burnt together on the same day, by the bishop of Strasburg. H. Mut., Chron. lib. 19.

Bruschius, in his history of the Monasteries of Germany, relates, that at the same time, thirty-five, or, as others read, thirty-nine persons, inhabitants of Mentz, were brought to Bingen, and there burnt alive for the doctrine of the Waldenses; and at another time, by the same bishop of Mentz, eighteen others for the same confession, Also A. Melt., 2d book, fol. 457, col. 3; also P. J. Twisck, Chron., Q. 526, col. 1, from Guil. Merulae Tijdt-thresoor, fol. 800.


In the year 1214, Conrad of Marpurg, a Dominican friar, was appointed by Pope Innocent III, grand inquisitor of the faith over all Germany, and sent by him closely to search out and examine such as were said to have strayed from the faith of the Roman church. This commission he carried out with such cruelty for full nineteen years, that an incredible number of persons, declared heretics by him, were put to death, partly by fire and partly with the sword.

Trithemius speaks of the manner of this inquisition, saying, "That this inquisitor, Conrad of Marpurg, used to try the heretics (the true Christians), by giving them a red-hot iron into their hands, and to deliver all those that were burnt by it as heretics, unto the secular judge, to be sentenced to the fire." Hence it came that only very few escaped, but that all who were once accused and

* What the Waldenses held with regard to infant baptism, the mass, and transubstantiation, has been previously shown. brought to him for examination were, without mercy, condemned by him as heretics to be burned., "There were some," he writes,"who held that he condemned very many innocent persons, because the red-hot iron, finding none without sin, although they otherwise had never been tainted with any heresy, burned almost everyone that took it." Trithem. Chron. Hirsaug., A. D., 1214 and 1215. Also A. Melt., 2d book, fol. 459, col. 3; also fol. 466, col. 4.


This was the most cruel and dreadful time which one could live to see; for this entire infernal inquisition, which was carried on with red-hot iron and other intolerable means, had penetrated even into the Netherlands, so that there, not less than in Germany, this tyranny was carried on in the same manner, and even worse.

I cannot forbear here to inform you, though with a terrified and shuddering heart, of what I have found with respect to this matter, in a certain account which has just fallen into my hands, as it were, for this occasion. Marcus Zueris van Boxhorn, author of the Nederlandtsch Historien, in his first book, p. 23, printed A. D. 1649, at Leyden, and dedicated to the H. M. Lords States, gives the following account with reference to it:

The trial by red-hot iron.-If a person charged with holding sentiments contrary to the doctrine of the Roman church, from fear of a cruel death, denied it, the accused was delivered into the hands and custody of a priest, who was to find out the truth. Before making the trial, then commonly called the ordeal, they together spent three days ostensibly in fasting and prayer. This done, they went together to the church, where the priest, in his sacerdotal attire, placed himself in front of the altar, upon which he laid a piece of iron, first chanting the song of the three children in the fiery furnace, "Praise the Lord, all His works," etc., and then pronouncing a blessing over the altar, and the fire in which the iron was to be laid. The iron, while heating on the coals, was repeatedly sprinkled with holy water, and in the meantime mass was read. When the priest took the wafer into his hand, he adjured the accused, praying meanwhile (ostensibly) to God that by His righteousness He would discover the truth of the matter, using among others these words

The priest's prayer over the red-hot iron.- "'Lord God I we pray Thee that Thou wouldst clearly manifest the truth in this Thy servant; Thou, O God, who hast in former times done great and wonderful signs by fire, among Thy people; who didst deliver Abraham, Thy son, from the fire of the Chaldeans by which many perished; who didst preserve Lot, Thy servant, when Sodom and Gomorrah were justly laid in the ashes by the fire; who, in the sending of the Holy Ghost by the light of fiery and flaming tongues, didst separate the be-

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lievers from the unbelievers; grant us the grace, while we make this trial, that through this red-hot fire we may discover the truth. If this, Thy servant, who is now being tried, is guilty, let his hand be seared and burnt by the fire. But if, on the contrary, he is innocent, let him not be hurt by the fire. Lord God, to whom all secrets are known, however hid they are, fulfill, by Thy goodness, the expectation of our confidence and faith, while we make this examination; that the innocent may be acquitted; but the guilty detected and punished.', "When the priest had uttered this prayer," writes M. S. Boxhorn, p. 24,"he again sprinkled the redhot iron with holy water, and pronounced this blessing over it: 'The blessing of God the Father, and God the Son, and God the Holy Spirit, come down upon this iron, that by it we may be enabled to pronounce a true judgment."'

How the iron was given into the hand of the accused.-This having been said, the flaming iron was given into the hand of the accused, who had to carry it nine paces. The hand was then closely wrapped up with cloth by the priest, and sealed, for three days, at the end of which it was inspected. If it was wounded, the accused was judged to be guilty; if not, he was acquitted.

Oh, cruel inquisition I by which not only men, but even God was tried and tempted to the utmost."Thou shalt not," says Christ,"tempt the Lord thy God." Matt. 4:7.

Another examination, by hot water.-Sometimes also a kettle with hot, boiling water was used, into which the accused had to thrust his hand up to the elbow, in order to ascertain his guilt or innocence. This procedure was called Ketel-vang, in the ancient Netherlands, and particularly in the Friesian statutes and laws.

The trial by cold water.-Likewise, and for the same purpose, the cold and consecrated water of the canals or rivers was used. The accused were cast into it, and from the sinking or floating of their bodies, the righteousness or unrighteousness of their case was judged. This mode was carried out in the following manner at that time: A priest, one of the judges, went with the accused, and a great train of others, to a deep canal, ditch, or river, near-by; and standing on the shore or brink, he adjured the water with these words, "I adjure thee, O Water." However, first he gave the accused a cup of holy water to drink, saying, "This holy water be for a test to thee this day.'; Turning then to the water, he exclaimed, "I adjure thee, O Water, in the name, etc., who created thee in the beginning, and would have thee serve to meet the necessities of man, and be separated from the waters above." He then adjured the water again in the name of Christ, and then in the name of the Holy Ghost, and finally in the name of the Holy Trinity; and this, with such hard, stern and severe words that I am shocked, and afraid in my very soul to repeat them."Thereupon followed," writes M. S. Boxhorn,"several additional solemn adjurations (these, however, he does not relate), which, when the priest had finished, the accused was stripped starknaked, and cast or driven into the water. If he sank, he was considered innocent; but if he floated, he was forthwith condemned and punished by fire, as being guilty." Page 26.

If any one should desire to read a full account as regards said papistic adjurations over the water, let him consult M. S. Boxhorn, Nederlandtsch Hist., 1st book, pp. 25, 26.


Before bringing persons to the trial with red-hot iron, hot or boiling water, or in cold rivers, which was called the severest or extremest examination, milder means were employed, especially in the Netherlands; however, with such intricacies, and so many snares, that an honest soul, that would act candidly, and without dissimulation, could not escape but was in danger of losing his life.

The above-mentioned Boxhorn, describing the manner of examination used at that time against the Vaudois, who also belonged to the Poor Men of Lyons, and were at that time one people with the Albigenses and Waldenses, but afterwards differed with them in various articles, relates: That the Dominicans, a certain order of monks, were at that time sent by the pope here into the Netherlands, as inquisitors; who, in order to well execute their office as it were, had put in writing a certain mode of examination, which literally read as follows

Examination.-"When any one in the Netherlands is brought before the judge, suspected and accused of heresy, he shall first be asked: Why are you apprehended? Does any one know of your imprisonment? Have you not learned from any one the cause of your apprehension? If he say

I do not know; answer him: They say that you, seduced by certain teachers who keep themselves concealed, have, to a considerable extent, departed from the Christian faith, as it is publicly taught in this country and elsewhere, throughout all Christendom. Let him answer as well or as much as he will, and let forthwith an oath be demanded and put to him, unless his youth does not admit of his swearing. Before he takes the oath, these words shall be spoken to him: See, you are to swear here, that you will tell in all sincerity the truth as it is known to you, concerning yourself as well as others in regard to whom you will be questioned. If he refuses to swear,* he shall be suspected so much the more.

* From this it is quite evident that said people had an aversion to the swearing of oaths. But some one may say: This has refer. ence to adjuring their belief. To this it may be replied, that the oath demanded here did not aim at anything further than the tell. ing of the truth, as the preceding words declare.
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"See well to it also, that he have no reason to say that he was compelled by threats or otherwise to swear; but if he is ready willingly to take the oath, present these words to him

The oath administered by the inquisitors, near the chapter-house of Utrecht, to those who at that time were called heretics.--"I, N. N. N., swear to God Almighty, my Lord of Utrecht (or otherwise) and the lords present in his stead, that I will tell the pure truth, without fear, of all matters known to me, concerning which I shall be questioned here; not only in regard to myself, but also to others. So help me God and His holy mother, in my last hour." Boxhorn, Nederl. Hut., Q. 15.

In this manner the inquisitors proceeded, and then observed the following mode of examination, which it seems they had to employ as their fundamental rule, against those who were called heretics, "If he is not known to you (says this rule) question him thus: What is your name? Where were you born? Who was your father? Again: How often have you confessed to the teachers of the heretics, who secretly circulate that they have come into the world in place of the apostles, to go from place to place, preaching the Gospel?*

Again, "How long have you resided here? How old were you when you began to give audience to these heretics? When did you last confess to them? For whom did you take them? Do they also wear crowns [the tonsur] and the priestly garb? What penance did they impose on you? Did they not charge you to say an Ave Maria? Did you believe that it was in their power to forgive your sins? Who first directed you to these heretics? To how many heretics have you confessed? What was the name of the first? the second? the third? etc., "Did your parents also hold this heretical belief? How often have you received the body of Christ? Have you also confessed to our priests? Have you also confessed to them, that you hold this heretical belief? Why did you not confess it? How often have you heard them teach? where first? in what houses, or places? in what room or chamber? by day or at night? in the morning or evening? Who were there besides you? What did your teachers preach respecting purgatory? It there a purgatory? How many times a day do you pray for the souls of your parents, friends, and benefactors? What alms have you given for them? How many days have you fasted for them? How many masses have you had read for them?, "Can you say the Ave Maria! Say it. Can you say any prayers to the saints? Do you believe, that the holy Mary, and other saints, are acquainted with our distresses, and that they are filled with compassion on this account, and pray for us? Who is the patron of your parish? When is his day ,celebrated? Have you properly celebrated him?

* It seems that these inquisitors thought that these people also observed auricular confession; which is a grave misapprehension, seeing their confession avowed the contrary.

What kind of a saint is it? Is it an angel? or a martyr? or a confessor? or an apostle? or a virgin? or a widow? What did you bring as an offering on their feast day? Have you chosen for yourself a certain apostle? Who is your apostle?, "What do you hold with regard to the worship of the holy cross? the nails? the crown of thorns? the spear? and the images of the saints?, "Have you ever journeyed to Rome, to obtain forgiveness of your sins? Have you sprinkled yourself with holy water? Have you tasted the consecrated salt? Have you consecrated twigs and tapers in your house? Have you done this with a pure and upright heart, as do other Christians, who by your people are called Strangersf or have you done it merely for appearance' sake, so as not to be detected in your heresy? Tell the simple truth., "Do you not believe that St. Martin has become a saint, and that his holy soul is now in the kingdom of heaven? Will you drink in the name and to the remembrance of St. Martin? Do you know any hymns to the honor of God, or His holy mother? and so forth., "Say, finally: Will you desist with all your heart from your errors, and separate yourself from the heretics, and henceforth have no fellowship with them? If so, then swear thus:

The second oath administered by the inquisitors to those who were at that time called heretics; which none of the true martyrs ever swore. "I, N. N. N., swear an oath, to God Almighty, my lord, bishop N. N., and the lords present in his stead, without any dissimulation, that henceforth I will go no more to the people that call themselves, etc., and will have fellowship neither with them nor with their leaders, teachers, etc., as long as they remain heretics. Moreover, I forswear (see what paptistic tricks these are), all manner of unbelief that is contrary to the open faith taught and maintained everywhere in the holy Roman church and in Christendom. And that I will also submit to penance for my transgressions, when and as it shall, though in mercy, be imposed upon me. So truly help me God and His mother, in my last hour." Boxhorn, page 18. Concerning the examination, see page 15-17.

NOTE.-Who does not see, beloved reader, that these were snares from which the pious could not extricate themselves without losing their lives? for it was certain that the Poor Men of Lyons, in those times, whether called Vaudois,* Waldenses, or Albigenses, did not swear at all; which, especially as regards the Waldenses and Albigenses, has been distinctly proved in our previous explanation. This, then, was the first snare which they could not escape.

In the second place, by the form of that oath it was proposed to them, that they should forsake their entire religion, faith, and worship, and join

* That the very odious name"Vaudois", was given the Poor Men of Lyons, need offend no one; since Christ Himself and His holy apostles were often called evil and opprobrious names, by their adversaries.
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themselves to the Roman church which they held to be worse than Babylon. Hxow could this be done by them with a good conscience? In no wise. This snare, therefore, they could likewise not escape. What, then, had they to expect? Nothing less than certain death; yea, a cruel, ignominious, and accursed death, though blessed for those who, remaining steadfast, suffered it.

I will say nothing now of the cruel and horrible manner of inquisition, by red-hot iron, hot water, as also in open rivers,* which generally followed upon the examination just stated.

What heathen or barbarians have ever acted thus? It is true, they put the pious witnesses of Jesus to death in a very painful manner; however, that was the end of it; and, besides, sometimes means remained by which it was possible to escape death, and yet keep the faith. And we nowhere read, that they ever had such a mode of inquisition over matters of faith; but the Romanists, who call themselves Christians, were not afraid or ashamed of it.

Certainly, here one or the other, either the body or the soul, had to be sacrificed by the martyrs, for if they would save the body, by forsaking the faith, which they, in their conscience, recognized as the genuine, yea, the only and eternal truth, they were in danger, yea, fully assured of losing their souls; on the other hand, if they sought to preserve their souls, by their good confession, and by forsaking the superstitions of popery, they had to lose their bodies, and this by the most cruel, horrible, and miserable death; which, according to the custom of that time, was to be placed alive into the flames until death ensued.

In this manner, very many, yea, almost a countless number, of pious Christians, called Albigenses and Waldenses, perished in those times; who, constrained by the love of Christ, to hold fast the confession of their faith, willingly exchanged this earthly for the heavenly; suffering here the tabernacle of their body to be dissolved, in order to have a building with God, a house not made with hands, eternal in the heavens. II Cor. 5:1.

We will now see, what persons perished for the faith, in that cruel inquisition, particularly under the test of red-hot iron, not in the Netherlands, but in Germany, where it first originated.


Now, when the throne of antichrist began to suffer much detriment through the doctrine of the Waldenses, and infant baptism, the swearing of oaths, the secular power and dominion, the authority of the Pope of Rome, the mass, purgatory, absolution or forgiveness of sins by the so-called clergy, pilgrimages, visitations of the holy sepulchres,

* For further information respecting the method of the inquisitors, see our account of the martyrs for the year 1301

etc. prayers, or sacrifices for the dead, and other things pertaining to popery, were opposed by them, they saying, that these things ought to have no place in the true church of Christ; it came to pass, A. D. 1215, that this cruel man, Conrad of Marpurg, of whom it was stated, for the year 1214, that he had been sent into Germany, as grand inquisitor, by Pope Innocent III, apprehended over eighty persons, both men and women, who were called Waldenses and made the same confession. They were also examined, concerning their faith, in that horrible manner of which we have already spoken, namely, by taking a red-hot iron into their bare hands; and having all of them endured it patiently, and remaining steadfast, they were finally condemned to be burnt alive as heretics; which was done to them all on the same day, at Strasburg, in said year of their apprehension, A. D. 1215.

Of this the papistic writer Trithemius gives the following account, "At this time, namely A. D. 1215, there were very many who were heretics secretly, men as well as women, who spread divers strange errors throughout all Germany, France, and Italy; of whom great numbers were apprehended and burnt alive. For in said year more than eighty were apprehended in Strasburg, at the same time, among whom but very few were found innocent; for if any of them deni ed the heresy,* Conrad of Marpurg, the pope's inquisitor, would try them by giving them red-hot iron into their hands, and deliver all those that were burnt by it, to the secular judge, as heretics, to be sentenced to the fire." Trith. Chron. Hiysaug. Also, A. Mell., 2d book, fol. 459. C. Mellinus calls these martyrs Waldenses, fol. 457, col. 3; and their confession he has shown, fol. 446, col. 1, 2.


About that time, Pope Innocent III had advised Dominic, that by means of constant preaching and disputation he should wondrously execute the office of inquisition, which he had entrusted to him, namely, against the so-called heretics; and that he should reconcile to the Roman church those who should ostensibly become converted; but should justly condemn such as remained refractory, that is, steadfast in their faith. Sixtus 5, in Diplonn. instit. Festi S. Petri Mart.

Dominic discharged his inquisitorial office so energetically in the city of Toulouse, against the heretics mentioned, that is the Christians called Waldenses, that several who had been cast into prison, were, by his advice, delivered to the secular judge, to be burned. For, when in those times people could not be overcome by way of argument, with the Word of God, they began to dispute with fire

* It is necessary here to understand that by the word"heresy" those people did not mean their orthodox faith; but all that could truly be called heresy; and this they then disavowed; whereby this inquisitor, (to all appearance) though he was very crafty, was greatly misled.
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and sword against them; and then it was an easy matter to conquer them, not in regard to:the truth, but in regard to their bodies and lives. This was also the case with these pious people of Toulouse, who would rather lose their lives than forsake the truth; which they confirmed in the flames by their death, having commended their souls into the hands of God, in the year of our Lord 1215.

The papist Theodoric, in his biography, of Dom-, inic, makes mention of these martyrs, saying, "When he (Dominic) was preaching, at this time, in the parts of Toulouse, it happened that some. heretics were apprehended in that city and were convicted by him; whom, when they would not return to the Catholic church, he delivered to the secular Judge. When they had been condemned to be burnt." Theod. in vita Dominici, citate Bzov. ad A. D. 1215, Art. 11, 12. Also, A. Mellinus, 2d book, fol. 460, col. 4.

NOTE.-A. D. 1220 lived the strong and celebrated theologian Almaricus; he reproved as idolatry the invocation of saints, and denied transubstantiation; on which account he was burnt at Paris. P. J. Twisck, page 537, col. 1, from Hist. Andr., page 162.

A. D. 1218.-In a certain ancient history of the martyrs of this time, I have found the following account, in which one of the orthodox believers presents a summary of the doctrine of the papists, as opposed to the true doctrine of the true church of , God in those times; it reads as follows

1."They found their church upon the succession and derivation of the bishops (though erroneously) from the times of the apostles.

2."They call those bishops, who consecrate churches, chapels, and altars; who make mass priests and sanctuaries of the altars.

3."They regard the pope as the supreme bishop, the head of their churches; who may be reproved by none but God.

4."They are divided into many contending sects; some are ecclesiastics, some seculars. The ecclesiastics have separated themselves from the common people-whom they call the laity-and are th mselves variously divided. Some are called monk and nuns; who vow, not to marry; to submit to voluntary poverty; to observe human institutions, such as, to have nothing to do with money; to wear a gray, white, or black cap; to eat no flesh; to be dumb at times.; and other similar false and invented forms of holiness. Others are called secular priests; who also may not marry, but like the others, have to do a great amount of muttering and reading.

5."They have priests, who are consecrated by the bishops, to offer up sacrifice for the living and the dead.

6."All these ecclesiastics hold themselves exempt from punishment by civil authority, and bear no burdens with the citizens, since they are exempt. 7."They seek their salvation out of Christ, in their own works and merits, which they also sell to each other for money; such as masses, indulgences, pilgrimages, and the merits of departed saints, which they also sell to the dead, who, they say, are in purgatory.

8."They have an idol or patron for every city, village, or hamlet.

9."They divide the power and honor of God among the departed saints; thus, seamen invoke St. Nicholas, St. Christopher, and St. Anna; women in travail, St. Mary; for gum-boils, St. Appollonia; against pestilence, St. Rochus and St. Anthony.

10."They set up images in their churches; they light tapers, torches, and lamps before them; they clothe them in cloth, silk, velvet, silver, and gold; they carry them with great reverence on their shoulders; they visit them in different places, and offer gifts to them (to which practice the popes and bishops append indulgence for sins); they kneel before them; they kiss, and worship them.

11."In their oaths they swear by God and all His saints, etc.

12."They pray to, and call upon God, without considering their need, and without thinking why they call upon Him.; they give Him their prayers by the number, as apples are bought; they read, in the hours, rosaries, etc.

13."They create many sabbaths, which they call holidays, in honor of departed saints; on which days manual labor is forbidden on pain of punishment; while drinking to excess, bartering, and gambling remain unpunished. On these days they generally commit shameful idolatry; the services are. read in an unknown tongue; water is conjured; the organ is played; and the dead are called on for help and assistance.

14."To the two sacraments, or signs of grace, instituted by Christ in His church, namely, holy baptism and the holy Supper, which they have shamefully corrupted, they have added five others, namely, confirmation, matrimony, ordination of mass priests, auricular confession, and extreme unction.

15."In baptism they leave out the most important part, namely the preaching of the Gospel; and add of their own, conjured salt, grease, spittle, and tapers, and exorcise the devil from the child which he never possessed.

16."They also baptize bells, giving them names.

17."They have changed the Lord's Supper into an offering for the living and the dead; they conJure the bread with five words,* and persuade the people, that the bread is changed into flesh, and the wine into blood.

18."They withhold the wine from the laity, contrary to the command of Christ, who said: 'Drink ye all of it.', "Floc est enim corpus meum", i. e. for this is my body.

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19."They worship the bread, and say that it is their God; they enclose it in coffers and ciboria; they carry it through the streets; they burn torches and tapers before it, also at noonday; they address and salute it; but it answers not.

20."In their churches they have altars draped with linen, upon which burning tapers are placed at daytime, when mass is read.

21."Mass is read by a mass priest, who is hired to do it for money, or a yearly salary; he comes clothed in strange attire, after Jewish fashion, with a drinking cup of silver or:gold in his hand, and accompanied by an attendant. He then says his confession before the altar, in Latin (though the attendant does not understand it), and invokes the assistance of the dead saints. Then, having kept up his mummery for a considerable time, having spoken loud and low, turning himself hither and thither, kissing and licking, he finally takes bread and wine, and forthwith offers the same to God, for the redemption of souls, for the hope of salvation, and the health of those present. Thus they reject Thy sacrifice, O Christ Jesus, which Thou once didst make for our salvation. O God, says the writer, how canst Thou suffer this? He then calls the dead saints to the feasts, desiring to be aided by their merits. Over the bread he breathes these five words: Hoc ist enim corpus meum, that is

For this is my body; supposing that thereby the bread will be changed into flesh. He then holds it above his head, for the people to worship it. So he does also with the cup. Then he prays for all those who sleep in Christ, that they may obtain a place of refreshing. Thereupon he prays to the Father, to accept His Son, whom they believe to have there, as graciously as he accepted the offerings of Melchisedec and of Abel. Finally, he worships the bread, calling it the Lamb of God. Having worshiped the Lamb, he breaks it in pieces, and eats it up, also quaffing the wine, which he imagines to be the Lamb's blood. This is the glorious mass of the papists, which, says our author, is a shameful corruption of the Supper of Christ, and has been reprehended by many godly men, who on this account had shed their blood.

22."Such masses they read in honor of dead saints, of the sacrament, of the cross, the spear, and the nails.

23."They sell the same as a remedy against all sickness, against storm, thunder, lightning, hail, tempests at sea, and every calamity. Every man is served according to his money; they who give little, have a dry mass, or a wet mass without singing; those who give much, get a half-sung mass, or one partly sung, according as to how much they give.

24."They teach, that their invented sacrament of confirmation is of more importance than the sacrament of baptism, instituted by Christ; and that baptism is incomplete without confirmation.

25."They dissolve marriage, in order that the husband or the wife may become spiritual, that is, a priest, monk, or nun, contrary to the command of Christ: What God hath joined together, let no man put asunder.", "Time would fail me," writes this zealous man,"if I were to recount all the falsities of the papists, in life, doctrine; and sacraments; and still they can endure no admonition to reform, but persecute with fire and sword, those who admonish and reprove them." Ex Author. Tempor., A. D. 1218, compared with the History of the Martyrs, by J. S., edition 1645, fol. 32, col. 1-3. Gerard de la Motte, deacon of the Christians called Albi-Waldenses, with some of his fellow-believers, burnt for the faith, at Borriens, A. D. 1227.

When the believing defenseless. Albi-Waldenses* had enjoyed rest for a season, and the lily of their true faith was beginning, in some measure, to grow and blossom, in all purity and beauty (as compared with former times), the thorns of persecution immediately arose over it; inasmuch as these pious and upright people were forthwith deprived of their liberty. by the Romanists; so that as soon as it was noticed, that they increased, here or there, though secretly, under the protection of their authorities, means were sought without delay, to subdue, yea, utterly to exterminate, them.

This appeared A. D. 1227, when, upon the mere report that a few of these people resided in the town of Borriens, the whole place (in order to apprehend them), was besieged and enclosed by Humbert of Beaujeu, who, having made himself master of the place, and having entered it, apprehended said people, and, as they would not desist from their faith, caused them to be burnt alive; all of whom testified to the truth and uprightness of their faith, as gold in the furnace, by their steadfast death in the midst of the flames.

Certain papistic writers say, that there were some in Borriens, who were said to be heretics, and who, as they would not desist from their belief, were burnt alive; among whom there is mentioned one Gerard de la Motte, who, it is said, was their deacon or minister. This is stated to have occurred A. D. 1227, in the time of Humbert of Beaujeu, whom the king had left in Languedoc. hignier, Hist. Eccles., from Vincentius and others already cited, and Chron. Moat f ortensi Hist. Adde Gaguin., lib. 7, and Paul. Aemil., lib. 7, de Cest. Franc. in Lud. 8. Also, Abr. Mell., 2d book, page 464, col. 3.


Franciscus Pegna, a Romanist, in a tract written by him to John Calderinus, touching the manner of proceeding against the heretics, declares to have

* Albigenses says one writer.
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found in past years, in the Vatican Library, as well as in an old parchment manuscript book, which had been brought from the inquisition from Florence to Rome, information respecting various councils held in those times against the Waldenses, in France. Among others, of one held in the year 1229 in Toulouse, a place where the Anabaptists, called Waldenses, greatly increased. The statutes and ordinances enacted there were published by Cardinal Romanus, Legate of the Pope. Franc. Pegna. T. 11. Doctor., part 2, fol. 410, edition Tenet., 1584.

Among other things adduced by the aforementioned Franciscus Pegna, in said tract, from the second council of the prelates of France, there is also found the ecclesiastical ordinance concerning the general abjuration of heresy, which reads as follows

Of the abjuration of heresy.-"In order that, through the help of God, the heretics may be more easily exterminated, and the Roman Catholic faith the sooner planted in the land, we decree, that you shall perfectly observe all the statutes, ecclesiastical ordinances, laws, and commandments that have been enacted regarding this matter, by the apostolical see (the pope and his legates), and by the princes. Moreover, that you make all males as well as females, the male sex from fourteen years and upwards, the female sex from twelve years and upwards, abjure ail heresy, and, besides, promise with an oath, that they will observe the Roman Catholic faith, defend the Catholic church, and persecute the heretics. All those who, after such abjuration, shall be found to have apostatized, and not to have observed or fulfilled the penance imposed upon them, shall be punished with the proper punishment, such apostates deserve."

Of the demolition of the houses of the Wald.enses.-The fifth chapter of the council of Toulouse contains the following brief ecclesiastical ordinance respecting the demolition of the houses of the heretics, namely, of the Waldenses and Albigenses, "We ordain, that the house in which a heretic is discovered, shall be razed to the ground; and the land or farm upon which a heretic is found, shall be confiscated."

0 f the forfeiture of all their goods.-In the 35th chapter of the council of Beziers we read, "Also the houses in which any heretic shall be found, living or dead, accused or condemned, being there with the knowledge or consent of the proprietors of said houses, provided said proprietors have attained their legal age, you shall cause to be demolished, and shall confiscate all the goods of those who live in them, unless they can legally prove or show their innocence or ignorance." This much of the year 1229, in the second book of the History of the Persecutions, page 465, col. 3.

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