In the new Keysers Chronijk there is related a cruel and iniquitous deed perpetrated by Emperor Maximin on the Christians. The author says: The Christians were assembled in their churches or meeting places, praising their Saviour, when the Emperor sent forth his soldiers, and had all the churches or meeting places locked up, and then wood placed around them and set on fire, in order to burn all the Christians within. But before the wood was ignited, he caused it to be proclaimed, that whoever would come out and sacrifice to the god Jupiter, should be secure of his life, and, moreover, be rewarded by the Emperor. They replied that they knew nothing of Jupiter; that Christ was their Lord and God, by the honor of His name, and calling upon the same they would live and die. It is to be regarded as a special miracle, that among so many thousand Christians there was not found one who desired to go out, in order to save his life by denying Christ; for all remained together with one accord, singing, and praising Christ, as long as the smoke and vapor permitted them to use their tongues. P. J. Twisck, 3d book, page 64, cot. 1, from Chron. Mich. Sach., fol. 146, Niceph., lib. 7, cap. 6. Hast. Mandri, fol. 10.
In the preceding number of several thousand martyrs who laid down their lives under Maximin, in the sixth persecution, none of them are mentioned by name, doubtless because in the estimation of the world they were mostly lowly and obscure people; but Sebastian Franck relates from some ancient writers that about sixty noted martyrs received the crown of martyrdom under this tyrant; which would be too long to recount. Chron. des Keysers, fol. 21, cot. 3. 247
Alexander of Jerusalem, who was a bishop of the church of Christ in that place, had to suffer much for the Christian truth. Eusebius Pamphilius of Cesarea writes, that for confessing Christ he was brought before the judge, bound with chains, and cast into prison. And he also writes, that when they had, time and again, drawn this venerable old man from the prison to the tribunal, and from the tribunal back to his chains, he continually, in his suffering and pain, thanked God, and finally, through unspeakable torments, offered up his spirit. Histor. Eccles., lib. 6, cap. 29.
P. J. Twisck fixes this occurrence in the year 247, and adds these words, "About this time there were many martyrs in Alexandria, Judea, at Cesarea, Antioch, and elsewhere, who testified to the Christian faith with their blood and death." Third book, page 66, cot. 1, from Euseb. Also, Hist. Adri., fol. 32, Jan. Cresp., fol. 48.
NOTE.-Although it is stated that the aforementioned Alexander was put to death after the seven years' reign of Philippus, by the Emperor Decius, A. D. 247, we have nevertheless included him in the sixth persecution, since he, as it appears, was apprehended long before the commencement of the seventh general persecution, which did not begin until A. D. 251, and was in full force in 253.
Sebastian Frank, P. J. Twisck, and Job. Gysius place the beginning of this persecution under Decius in A. D. 251, while Abraham Mellinus and the author of the Introduction to the Martyrs' Mirror begin it with the year 253; which difference can easily be reconciled in this manner: namely, that the decrees against the Christians were sent out and published about the year 251, but that they were not actually put in force until about A. D. 253. Compare Seb. Frank, etc., fol. 21, cot. 3, with P. J. Twisck, 3d book, page 67, cot. 2. Also, Joh. Gys., fol. 19, cot. 2. Also, A. Mell., 1st book, fol. 65, cot. 4. Also, Introduction, fol. 40, cot. 1.
P. J. Twisck, after narrating something in commendation of this Emperor, begins immediately to give an account of 'the tyranny which he employed against the Christians, saying, "He caused public mandates and decrees to be issued and posted up, that if they would not apostatize from Christ, to persecute the Christians everywhere, and to execute them without mercy with every. kind of torture
that could be devised. The torments with which the poor Christians were put to death in that day were very severe, as we may read in Dionysius, Gregory, Cyprian, Eusebius, Vincentius, and others. They were exiled, spoiled of their goods, sentenced to the mines, scourged, beaten. Beheading and hanging were. thought far too insignificant, yea, no punishment at all for them. Hot tar was most invariably poured over them, roasted at a slow fire, stoned, pricked in the face, eyes, and the whole body with sharp .pointed instruments, dragged through the streets over hard pebbles and rough stones, dashed against rocks, cast down from steep places, their limbs broken in pieces, torn asunder with hooks, rolled about on sharp potsherds, given as a prey and food to the wild beasts, stakes driven through their loins, etc.
There was scarcely a place where persecution was not in vogue; Africa, and Alexandria especially could be called the school of the martyrs. In short, Nicephorus says in his 5th book, chap. 29, that to count the martyrs of this time would be as easy as to undertake to count the sands of the seashore. See, P. J. Tzefisck, 3d book, for the year 251, p. 67, cot. 2, and page 68, cot. 1, from Euseb., lib. 7, cap. 1. Chron. Mich., fol. 154. Chron. Carionis, lib. 3. Seb. Fr., fol. 17 Hist Andrw, fol. 177, 2d part, fol. 174. Paul Merul., fol. 212-214. Leonh. Krentz. Chronologiae, fol. 16, 17. Chron. Car., fol. 236. Jan Crespin., fol. 53.
We shall begin with the persecution which at this time took place at Alexandria against the pious and defenseless Christians; for which reason this place was called by the ancients the"Scaffold of all tyranny."
Metras, also called Metranus, a God-fearing old man, was now apprehended by the riotous people at Alexandria, and commanded to utter blasphemous words against God; that is, to blaspheme the name of God, and to forsake the Saviour, Jesus. But as he refused to do so, they beat him on his whole body with sticks, pricked and pierced his face and eyes with sharp reeds, and, martyred thus, led him out of the city, and stoned him to death in
the suburbs. Euseb., lib. 6, cap. 41, fol. 122, letter O, taken from the letter of Dionys. Alexandrinus to Fabian, concerning the martyrs in Alexandria. Compared with A. Mell., 1st book, fol. 67, col. 1. Also, Joh. Gys., fol. 19, col. 4. Also, Introduction, fol. 40, col. 1.
Afterwards, an honorable believing woman, called Cointha, or, as others call her, Quinta, was seized and brought into a temple of idols, and placed before these, in order to compel her to worship them. But when she recoiled with abhorrence from the idols, they tied her feet together, and dragged her through all the streets of the city of Alexandria, beat her with rods, and as some writers have recorded, rubbed her naked body against mill-stones. When they had dragged, beaten, and rubbed her long enough, so that her body was completely lacerated, they at last dragged her into the suburbs, and there pelted her with stones until she was covered with them. Compare Euseb. with Abr. Mell. and loh. Gys. in the places referred to above concerning the martyr Metras.
Apollonia was an aged virgin, whom the enemies of the truth apprehended, and with their fists and blows in the face, knocked every tooth out of her head. In the meantime a large fire of wood was kindled, and they threatened to burn her alive, if she would not worship the gods, and forsake Christ. But notwithstanding this miserable death, she would rather go into the fire, .and lose her temporal life, than save it by abandoning Christ and losing her soul.
Touching the manner of her death, and her great willingness to die, A. Mellinus makes this statement, "This virgin was sentenced to be burned, or to blaspheme the name of Christ; but as she abhorred the latter, she wished to show that she was ready and willing to die for Christ." See Eusebius, Mellinus, and Gysius, in the books and on the pages referred to in connection with the martyrdom of Metras and Cointha.
As the afore-mentioned bloodthirstiness of the heathen at Alexandria did not abate, but increased more and more, against those who confessed the name of Jesus Christ, it came to pass that they laid their hands on a pious Christian, called Serapion, an Ephesian by birth. They dragged him out of his house, tore him almost limb from limb, and finally threw him out of a window; in consequence of which, after many torments, and having commended his soul to God, he tasted death, and thus was counted among the number of the steadfast and blessed martyrs. See the books cited above.
There was at this time and place also an old man, who, on account of great pain caused by gout, could not walk, but had to be carried. His name was Julian, and the ancients greeted him as a very venerable man, on account of his virtue. In pursuance of the imperial decree published against the Christians, he was brought by two carriers before the judge, to give an account of his faith.
Forthwith one of those who had carried him, fearing the severe examination, or the rack, apostatized from the faith; for which reason we deem his name unworthy of a place here; but the other, called Eunus, continued very constant in the faith, together with the old man Julian, who was his dear friend; hence both made a grand confession of it; notwithstanding their many severe torments.
Both were then seated naked upon camels, and led about the whole city of Alexandria, which is very large; scourged with many severe stripes, and finally brought before a great, high-flaming fire, into which both were cast, and burned alive, in the sight of a great multitude of people that stood about. Compare Euseb., lib. 5, cap. 31, fol. 123, col. 1, letter B., from the letter of Dionys. to Fabius, bishop of Antioch. Also, A. Mell., fol. 67, col. 4. Also, Joh. Gys., fol. 20, col.1.
There was yet another pious Christian, called Macar, or Macarius, a native of Lybia, whom the judge advised with many words, to forsake Christ; but he continued only the more steadfastly to confess his faith. Finally the judge commanded that he should be burned alive; which was done.
Epimachus and Alexander did not remain prisoners very long after Macar's death; but, after suffering much pain, having been cut and slashed with razors, lacerated with scourges, and wounded on the most sensitive parts of their bodies, they were finally burned alive with flaming fire. See the authors cited above.
At this time, God also wonderfully manifested His power in certain women, among whom four are mentioned by name, two called Ammonaria, and Mercuria and Dionysia. The last named two were aged women, one of them being the mother of many children, all of whom she nevertheless had forsaken, for Christ's sake. The other two, as it appears, were unmarried persons or young maidens, who loved their heavenly bridegroom, Jesus Christ, too much, to look for an earthly one. Of all these it is stated that they remained so steadfast in the confession of Jesus Christ, that the judge felt ashamed on this account, and, in order to put an end to the matter had them beheaded. See the authors and books cited above. Also, A. Melt., fol. 68, cot. 1.
Heron, Ater, and Isidore, Egyptians by birth, and a youth of fifteen years, called Dioscorus, were committed to the. Judge of Alexandria, at the same time. The judge examined the youth first, supposing it a very easy matter to persuade him, or deceive him by fair words, or, if not on this wise, to move him by torments (of which, as Eusebius says, many were inflicted upon him), to deny the Christian faith. But this excellent youth, Dioscorus, could be induced neither by fair words nor by the force of torments, to obey the judge.
The three men, namely Heron, Ater, and Isidore, the judge had most cruelly scourged, and examined with all manner of stripes, intending to draw them away from the faith; but when he saw that because of their faith in Jesus Christ they valiantly endured all the torments, he delivered them to the executioners to be burned alive; except the youth Dioscorus, whom he released, on account of his courage as well as the astonishingly discreet answers which he gave to every one of his questions; saying that in consideration of his youth he would wink at his perverseness for the present, so that, in the meantime he might reflect upon the matter, and repent. But the ancient writers state, that, coming to the church of Jesus Christ, God ordained him to be a bulwark and consolation of His people; awaiting a longer and severer conflict, and a greater and fuller reward; on account of which, as well as because of his previous sufferings, he was reckoned among the pious martyrs. See the above-mentioned authors and books.
The malignity of the tyrants had now become so great that they called the defenseless lambs of Christ murderers, and sought to put them to death under this name. Among those thus accused was a pious follower of Christ, called Nemesius, or, also, Nemesis, who, being accused of the same crime, first of all candidly and clearly vindicated himself from it. Thereupon his accuser charged him with being a Christian, and, therefore, nevertheless guilty. of death. Eusebius writes, that in this point the judge observed no moderation, but caused him first to be tortured with twofold torments, and then commanded that he should be burned with the murderers, unconscious of the fact that through his cruelty he made this holy martyr resemble our Saviour, who, for the salvation of mankind, was crucified between murderers. In regard to this, A. Mellinus says, "The judge made this martyr like unto his .Lord Christ, and, according to his example, had him placed between highwaymen, and then burned alive." A. Melt., 1st book, fol. 68, cot. 2, from Euseb., lib. 6, cap. 41. Also, P. .l. Twisck, 3d book, for the year 252, page 70, cot. 1, on the name Nemesion.
Biabylas, bishop of the church of Antioch, the capital of Syria, situated on the river Orontes, was a very godly and faithful shepherd of the flock of Christ. Knowing beforehand that this severe persecution was threatening the church of Christ, he very diligently instructed not only men and women, but also children in the principles of the Christian faith, and constantly admonished them in his preaching, not only to believe in Christ, but also to suffer for His name. Touching the cause of his imprisonment, the ancients have briefly described it thus: namely, that the Emperor Decius came to one of the congregations of the Christians, and requested to be admitted; but that the shepherd of that congregation or church, namely Babylas, in order to spare the congregations, opposed him boldly, saying, that it was not lawful for him thus audaciously to enter the house of the living God, and to view the mysteries of the Lord with his polluted eyes, or to .touch them with his murderous hands still covered with blood. The Emperor, unable to bear this, had Babylas, together with several others, seized, bound with chains, and placed in severe confinement.
Those who were apprehended with him, and were finally put to death, were, as appears from the
records, three young men, brothers, and were called, Urban, Philidian, and Epolonius; who, as some suppose, were his bodily, but according to others, his spiritual children, because he had won them for Christ through the doctrine of the truth.
When the hour of his departure began to draw near, that he was to be offered, and his disciples or other good friends came to visit him in prison, he earnestly ,asked, as a last request of them, to bury him with his fetters, chains, and bonds.
Concerning his death, Eusebius Pamphilius writes, "Bishop Babylas fell asleep in the Lord, in prison, at Antioch, after having made his confession, in all things like Alexander." Hist. Eccl. Edit. A. D. 1588, lib. 6, cap. 39, fol. 121, letters F, G.
But as all the other fathers who have written of Babylas speak of him as a martyr, they also state that he was executed with the sword. The records of his death, faithfully collected by Suidas and others from the most ancient writers, read thus, "When Babylas was sentenced by the Emperor Decius to be beheaded, together with the aforementioned three young men, he sang the comforting words of the 116th psalm, on his way to the place of execution: 'Return unto thy rest, O! my soul; for the Lord hath dealt bountifully with thee. He hath delivered my soul from death, mine eyes from tears, and my feet from falling. I will walk before the Lord in the land of the living."'
When Babylas and the three young men had arrived at the place where they were to be beheaded, Babylas begged, that they would first put to death before his eyes, the three youths (whether they were his bodily or his spiritual children) so that they might not be deterred or discouraged by his death from dying for the name of Christ.
While the executioners were busy executing the children, he prayed to the Lord, saying, "Here am I, Lord, and the children whom thou hast given me." And thus he encouraged the children, steadfastly to suffer for the Lord.
After this, Babylas also fell asleep very peacefully in the Lord, having commended his soul into the hands of the Lord, to bring it to the eternal rest of which he had spoken immediately before his death.
The mother of these children, and the brethren of the church of Antioch buried the dead bodies of these martyrs in a decent manner, together with the chains and fetters with which Babylas had been bound during his life.
Thus, this good father and his dear children took an honorable departure from this world together on the same day, and are awaiting now the blessed hope and the revelation of the great God, and their Saviour, Jesus Christ, for whose honor and glory they suffered these things. Abr. Mell., 1st book, fol. 68, Col. 4, and fol. 69, Col. 1, 2, from Euseb., lib. 6, cap. 29. Epi¢han. lib. de Mens. and Pond. Hieron. Catal. in Origene. Chrysost. Eunt. Gent. and Homed. 9 ad Ephes. Suidas in Babyla.acta ex Patribus Collecta. Suid in Hist. sub. nom. Babylm.
NOTE.-P. J. Twisck, who begins this persecution by Decius, with the year 251, fixes the death of this man, Babylas, in the second year of his reign, namely, A. D. 252. Chron. 3d book, Q. 70, Col. 1, from Hist. Andr., fol. 21. But Abr. Mellinus, who begins the persecution with the year 253, fixes his death in A. D. 254, (although the printer has erroneously made it A. D. 264; for Decius reigned only two years), and this is consequently the second year of Decius. We have followed the latter author.
Mention is made in this time of a certain pious Christian, called Pionius, a man greatly noted on account of his remarkable virtue, who always stood fearlessly before the judges, and, as Eusebius declares, steadfastly replied to all their questions, yea, taught and disputed in the court, so that those who wavered on account of the persecution, were thereby strengthened and encouraged. While in prison, he strengthened the brethren, and encouraged them, to fight steadfastly even unto the end, in the faith, for the Lord, in which he preceded them as a good leader. For, according to the testimony of Eusebius, he was finally nailed on a piece of wood, and cast into a flaming fire, and thus died a blessed death. Euseb., lib. 4, cap. 15, taken from the letter of those of Smyrna, concerning the death of Polycarp and some of the martyrs who followed him.
We shall endeavor to be as brief as possible, and, instead of relating all that pertains to this, present only the last acts of his death.
When the Governor, after much had been said on both sides, said to Pionius, "Why dost thou make such great haste to meet death?" Pionius answered, "I do not make haste to meet death, but life." Then said the Governor, "Thou dost not act wisely thus to hasten to meet death. Thou art like those who, despising death, for the sake of a little gain offer themselves to fight with the beasts. But since thou despisest death so much, thou shalt be burned alive."
This sentence of death was read to him from a tablet inscribed with Roman letters, "We have sentenced Pionius to be burned alive, because he has confessed that he is a Christian."
Having thus been sentenced, Pionius was brought to the place where he was to be burned. There he divested himself of his clothes, and,
having looked at his naked body, he cast up his eyes to heaven, praising and thanking God for having kept him to this hour free and unspotted from the idols.
With this, he voluntarily went and lay down on the firewood, stretched himself over it, and delivered himself to the soldiers, to be nailed to the wood.
When he was fastened to the wood, the servant said to him, "Be converted and alter your views; and we shall remove the nails." Pionius answered, "I feel that they are in already." And reflecting a little, he said to God, "Therefore, O Lord, do I hasten to death, that I may rise the sooner (or the more glorious)."
Having been nailed on the cross, he was raised up with his face towards the east. When a great heap of wood had been collected with which to burn him, he closed his eyes for some time, so that the people thought that he had already died. However, he prayed secretly in his heart; for when he had finished his prayer, he opened his eyes, and all at once the flame shot up to a great height, just as with a glad countenance he uttered the last word of his trust, saying, "Amen, O Lord, receive my soul," and calmly and without manifesting the least sign of pain, he gave his spirit over into the hands of God.
This happened when Julius Proculus Quintilianus was Proconsul of Asia, and Emperor M. Q. T. Decius was Consul for the third, and Gratus for the second time, at Rome, in A. D. 254, by virtue of the seventh persecution under Emperor Decius, at Smyrna, in Asia Minor. Abr. Mell., 1st book, fol. 71, col. 3, 4, from Euseb., lib. 4. Also, Acta per Sym. Metaph. Genuma, and here pro Consularia.
It is stated that shortly after the death of Pionius and the preceding martyrs, there suffered a certain pious Christian, called Maximus, a citizen of Ephesus; concerning whom, we, in order to present the matter in the briefest, clearest and plainest manner, shall, (instead of the testimony of the fathers) copy the records themselves, which were approved by the Proconsul, and written by the clerk of the court. They read thus, "Maximus, a citizen of Ephesus, having been apprehended and brought before Optimus, the Proconsul of Asia, the latter asked him: 'What is thy name?', "He answered: 'My name is Maximus.', "The Proconsul asked: 'What is thy estate?' which meant, whether he was free-born, or a servant., "Maximus said: 'I belong to myself, and am free-born. Nevertheless, I am a servant of Christ, and manage my own affairs.', "The Proconsul said: 'Art thou a Christian?'"Maximus replied: 'Notwithstanding I am a sinner, I am nevertheless a servant of Christ.', "The Proconsul questioned: 'Knowest thou not the decrees of the invincible Princes, which have now been brought hither?', "Maximus asked back: 'What are they?', "The Proconsul answered: 'That all the Christians are to forsake their superstitions, acknowledge the only true Prince, to whose power all things are subject, and worship his gods.', "Maximus said: 'Yea, I have heard the unjust decree of this Prince or Emperor, and hence have come, openly to declare myself against it.', "The Proconsul spoke: 'Then sacrifice to the gods.', "Maximus said: 'I sacrifice to none, except to God; and I rejoice that from my childhood's days I have offered myself only to God.', "The Proconsul again said: 'Sacrifice, lest I cause thee to be tormented in divers manners.', "Maximus said: 'This is just what I have always longed for: to be deprived of this temporal and frail life, and thereby attain life eternal.', "The Proconsul then commanded his soldiers to beat Maximus with sticks. While he was being beaten, the Proconsul said to him: 'Sacrifice, Maximus, that you may be released from these torments.', "Maximus said: 'These torments, which I gladly and willingly receive for the name of my Lord Jesus Christ, are no torments at all; but if I apostatize from Christ, I must expect the real and everlasting torments.', "The Proconsul therefore had him suspended on the torture-stake, and dreadfully tormented; and said to him: 'See, now, where thou hast come to by thy folly; sacrifice, therefore, that thou mayest save thy life.', "Maximus replied: 'If I sacrifice not, I shall save my life; but if I do, I shall lose it. For neither thy sticks, hooks, claws, pincers, nor thy fire hurt me; nor do I feel any pain through it, because the grace of Christ abides in me.', "Then the proconsul pronounced the sentence of death, which was as follows: 'I command, that Maximus be stoned to death, as an example and terror to other Christians; because he would not submit to the laws, and sacrifice to the great Diana of Ephesus! Acta Proconsuluria." Thus far extend the words which the clerk of the court himself wrote.
The Christian who copied these records, adds the following, "And presently this faithful champion of Christ was taken away by the servants of Satan, brought without the city walls, and stoned. While he was being led away, and stoned, he thanked God with all his heart, who had made him worthy to overcome the devil in the conflict; and thus committed his soul into the hands of his Lord Jesus Christ."
Thus this pious witness of Jesus laid down his life amidst a volley of stones, for the honor of his
Saviour, and thus was registered among the holy and steadfast martyrs. A. Melt., 1st book, fol 72, cot. 3, 4, from Acta Procons. Also, Aug., lib. 2, de Doctr. Christ., cap. 26, Idem. contra Donatist. super alia acta citat.
In our account of baptism in the third century, with special reference to the year 231, we have spoken of the views of Origen and shown that he has left us very excellent and salutary teachings concerning baptism upon faith; and also, that in his teaching he opposed the swearing of oaths, war, compulsory celibacy, the literal view of the Lord's Supper, those who taught something, and did not practice it themselves, the antichrist, etc.
We have likewise shown there, that some very peculiar things were laid to his charge as his views, from which, however, the principal ancient writers, as well as later authors, have vindicated him; all of which may be examined at the place indicated, and considered with Christian discretion. This we leave to the judgment of the judicious. We shall therefore proceed to treat of his martyrdom, and how much he had to suffer for the name of the Lord Jesus.
From the very beginning of his knowledge he placed himself in great danger of being apprehended or put to death for the testimony of the Son of God. For when he was but seventeen years old, and his father, whom he affectionately loved, had been apprehended for the Christian religion, and had nothing to expect but death (as we have noted for the year 202), he did not only comfort him by letter, but, as other writers state, desired to follow him into prison, yea even unto death; which he would have done, had not his mother prevented it by withholding or taking away his clothes. Introduction, fol. 38, cot. 2, from Euseb.
Besides this he often exposed himself to danger for the Christian martyrs, because of his extraordinary love for them. He would station himself near the tribunal, where the apprehended Christians were making their last defense, or were to receive their sentence of death, and when they were becoming weak he would strengthen and encourage them; he went with them to death, even to the place of execution; he gave them the last kiss of peace, as a friendly and fraternal farewell; so that frequently he would have lost his life, had not God remarkably and miraculously preserved him. Soldiers who were hired for the purpose by the enemies of the truth, lay in ambush for his person and for the house in which he lived, in order to apprehend or kill him; so that on account of the fierce persecution he could remain no longer in Alexandria, the place where he had been brought up; and this the more, because the believers there, on account of his conspicuousness, could no longer conceal him.
His beloved disciples, whom he had faithfully taught the ways of God, had nearly all been put to death for the name of Jesus Christ, among whom were, Plutarch, Heraclides, Hero, the two pious men called Serenus, Rhais, Marcella, and others; whom we have mentioned in the years A. D. 203 and 204.
It may therefore be considered a miracle that Origenes lived so long in the midst of deadly persecutions, namely, from his seventh to his seventieth year, which is more than fifty years.
But finally, sufferings beyond measure came upon him; he was cast into the deepest prison, his neck loaded with iron chains, his feet placed in the stocks, and stretched so that four holes were between them.* There he was tortured with fire and divers other means of torment; but he bore it all with utmost patience. Nevertheless, it appears from ancient writers, that he was not put to death judicially, but, as Epiphanius writes, was banished to Cesarea Statonis; and that finally, having moved to Tyre, he died and was buried there, under Gallus and Valusianus. Compare the account of A. Melt., 1st book, fol. 57, cot. 1, 2, under the name Leonides, but especially fol. 77, cot. 3, 4, -under the name Origen, from Euseb., lib. 6, cap. 2. Hieron. Apol. Rufin. Suid. in Origene E¢iphan. de Mensuris. Hieron. Catal. in Origene. Also, Euseb., lib. 6. Also, P. J. Twisck, 3d book, for the year 231, page 61, cot. 1, 2, from Georgius hicelius. Also, Introduction, fol. 38, cot. 2. Also, Joh. Gys., fol. 18, cot. 3, about Leonides.
There are some who accuse Origen of apostasy; but different excellent authors have acquitted him of this charge; though in point of knowledge he had his weaknesses and failings.
Eusebius Pamphilius of Cesarea praises his virtue above measure, saying -that Origen wished to have no communion with Paulus Antiochenus, because the latter was tainted with error. Of Origen it was said, "This is he who lives as he teaches, and teaches as he lives. He sold his books of heathen philosophy, on condition that four pence a day should be given him for his daily needs, so that he would not be a burden to any one. He set all his disciples an example of poverty, that they should forsake whatever they possessed; hence he was beloved by everyone, because he contended with none about temporal goods, except that some were dissatisfied because he refused to accept what they offered to impart to him for the sustenance of his body." Eusebius further says, "It is said that for many years he went barefoot, using neither wine nor such like, but only the absolute necessaries of life, until disease in the breast, which endangered his life, compelled him to it." Lib. 6,cap. 1, 2, 3. Also, Baudart. in Apophthegm. Christian., lib. 3, page 100.
In refutation of those who accused Origen of apostasy, A. Mellinus writes (though he does not wish to defend his misconceptions or errors, as he calls them), "If this account of the apostasy of Origen were true, Porphyrius, who wrote at this time against the Christians, and was especially bitter against Origen, would very probably have mentioned it in his writings, and this the more so, as he dared unjustly to accuse Ammonius, Origen's teacher, of Apostasy: how much more then, would he have exerted himself against Origen, if the latter had really apostatized; whereas he acknowledges that Origen lived as a Christian to the end." A little further on he writes, "As regards his Christian life and steadfast confession of the name of Christ, we have no reason to call it in question, since even his enemies bear him a good testimony in this respect." Abr. Mell., 1st book, fol. 78, Col. 1, from. Porphyry.